Bophuthatswana

 

Map of Bophuthatswana in South AfricaFlag of Bophuthatswana

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Tswana (BaTswana), sometimes referred to as the Western Sotho, are a heterogeneous group, including descendants of the once great Tlhaping and Rolong societies, as well as the Hurutshe, Kwena, and other small groups. Their language, seTswana, is closely related to seSotho, and the two are mutually intelligible in most areas. About 4 million Tswana people live in southern Africa (3 million in South Africa and 1 million in the nation of Botswana). In South Africa, many BaTswana live in the area that formed the numerous segments of the former homeland, Bophuthatswana, as well as neighbouring areas of the North-West Province and the Northern Cape. Tswana people are also found in most urban areas throughout South Africa.

 

By the nineteenth century, several Tswana groups were politically independent, loosely affiliated chiefdoms that clashed repeatedly with Afrikaner farmers who claimed land in the northern Transvaal. In the late nineteenth century, Afrikaner and British officials seized almost all Tswana territory, dividing it among the Cape Colony, Afrikaner republics, and British territories. In 1910, when the Cape and the Transvaal were incorporated into the Union of South Africa, the Tswana chiefs lost most of their remaining power, and the Tswana people were forced to pay taxes to the British Crown. They gradually turned to migrant labour, especially in the mines, for their livelihood.

Tswana culture is similar to that of the related Sotho peoples, although some Tswana chiefdoms were more highly stratified than those of other Sotho or the Nguni. Tswana culture was distinguished for its complex legal system, involving a hierarchy of courts and mediators, and harsh punishments for those found guilty of crimes. Tswana farmers often formed close patron-client relationships with nearby Khoisan-speaking hunters and herdsmen; the Tswana generally received meat and animal pelts in return for cattle and, sometimes, dogs for herding cattle.

 

Bophuthatswana was declared "independent" on 6 December 1977, although no country other than South Africa and Transkei recognized its independence. Although there was no diplomatic recognition, Bophuthatswana set up a trade mission in Tel Aviv, Israel. Also there were informal contacts with Botswana to facilitate cross-border travel.

 

The homeland consisted primarily of seven disconnected enclaves near, or adjacent to, the border between South Africa and Botswana. Efforts to consolidate the territory and its population continued throughout the 1980s, as successive small land areas outside Bophuthatswana were incorporated into the homeland, like Mafeking (Mafikeng, 1980) and Thaba Nchu (1983). Its population of about 1,8 million in the late 1980s was estimated to be 70 percent Tswana peoples; the remainder were other Sotho peoples, as well as Xhosa, Zulu, and Shangaan. Another 1,5 million BaTswana lived elsewhere in South Africa.

 

Bophuthatswana's residents were overwhelmingly poor, despite the area's rich mineral wealth. Wages in the homeland's industrial sector were lower than those in South Africa, and most workers travelled to jobs outside the homeland each day. The poverty of homeland residents was especially evident in comparison with the world's wealthy tourists who visited Sun City, a gambling resort in Bophuthatswana.

 

The non-Tswana portion of the homeland population was denied the right to vote in local elections in 1987, and violence ensued. Further unrest erupted in early 1988, when members of the Botswana Defence Force tried to oust the unpopular homeland president, Lucas Mangope. Escalating violence after that led to the imposition of states of emergency and government crackdowns against ANC supporters in Bophuthatswana, who were often involved in anti-Mangope demonstrations. Mangope was ousted just before the April 1994 elections, and the homeland was officially dismantled after the elections. It seized to exist on 27 April 1994.

 

Although Bophuthatswana was not a member of the UPU, its stamps were in effect recognized as valid for international mail. In 1996 the postal administration was incorporated into the South African Post Office.

 

 

Capital:                      Mmabatho

Government:              parliamentary republic (unrecognized)

Area:                         40.011 km²

Population:                 1.430.000 (1983) / 2.489.347 (1992)

Currency:                   South African Rand (100 cents)

UN country code:         -

Internet TLD:              .za

Dialling code:             +27

 

Member of:                no international organizations

 

 

 

Links

 

Bophuthatswana in Wikipedia.

Flag of Bophuthatswana in Flags of the World.

 

 

 

Stamp catalogue

 

World Health Day 1978 - Down with high blood pressure

date:                   7 April 1978

designer:             Arthur Howard (Barry) Barrett

printer:               South African Government Printer, Pretoria, South Africa

perforated:          12:12½

sheet:                 25 (5 x 5)

extra:                 first day cover - first day card

 

1     4 c               kidneys, text "DOWN WITH HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE" and "AVOID KIDNEY INFECTIONS"

                          multicoloured

                          (cat. Michel 22/SG 22/Yvert 22)

 

Bophuthatswana - stamp as described above

 

2     10 c             heart, spoon with salt, text "DOWN WITH HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE" and "LOWER YOUR SALT INTAKE"

                          multicoloured

                          (cat. Michel 23/SG 23/Yvert 23)

 

Bophuthatswana - stamp as described above

 

3     15 c             cutlery, skull, text "DOWN WITH HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE" and "OVEREATING IS DANGEROUS"

                          multicoloured

                          (cat. Michel 24/SG 24/Yvert 24)

 

Bophuthatswana - stamp as described above

 

 

First powered flight 75th anniversary

date:                   1 December 1978

designer:             Arthur Howard (Barry) Barrett

printer:               South African Government Printer, Pretoria, South Africa

perforated:          12½

sheet:                 25 (5 x 5)

extra:                 first day cover - first day card

 

4     10 c             Wright Flyer, text "75th / Anniversary / of the first / engine / powered / flight by the / Wright

                          brothers / INTERNATIONAL / CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION"

                          multicoloured

                          (cat. Michel 33/SG 33/Yvert 33)

 

Bophuthatswana - stamp as described above

 

5     15 c             Wright brothers, text "75th / Anniversary / of the first / engine / powered / flight by the / Wright

                          brothers / ORVILLE WRIGHT WILBUR WRIGHT / INTERNATIONAL / CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION"

                          multicoloured

                          (cat. Michel 34/SG 34/Yvert 34)

 

Bophuthatswana - stamp as described above

 

 

International Year of the Child

date:                   7 June 1979

designers:            6: Hendrick Sebapo

                          7: Daisy Morapedi

                          8: Peter Tladi

                          9: Hendrick Sebapo

printer:               South African Government Printer, Pretoria

perforated:          14

sheet:                 25 (5 x 5)

remark:              stamps depict children's drawings of national legends and fables

extra:                 first day cover - first day card

 

6     4 c               boy looking at the rising sun, IYC emblem, text "INTERNASIONALE JAAR VAN DIE KIND 1979"

                          multicoloured

                          (cat. Michel 43/SG 43/Yvert 43)

 

Bophuthatswana - stamp as described above

 

7     15 c             men making animals of clay, IYC emblem, text "INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF THE CHILD 1979"

                          multicoloured

                          (cat. Michel 44/SG 44/Yvert 44)

 

Bophuthatswana - stamp as described above

 

8     20 c             head of a man and drums, IYC emblem, text "INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF THE CHILD 1979"

                          multicoloured

                          (cat. Michel 45/SG 45/Yvert 45)

 

Bophuthatswana - stamp as described above

 

9     25 c             man and boy with donkey, IYC emblem, text "INTERNASIONALE JAAR VAN DIE KIND 1979"

                          multicoloured

                          (cat. Michel 46/SG 46/Yvert 46)

 

Bophuthatswana - stamp as described above

 

 

International Year of Disabled Persons

date:                   30 January 1981

designer:             Hein Botha

printer:               South African Government Printer, Pretoria

perforated:          14¼:14

sheet:                 25 (5 x 5)

remark:              text is placed on the bottom edge of the stamps

extra:                 first day cover - first day sheet

 

10    5 c               boy with ear phones, IYDP emblem, text "Aid for the deaf"

                          multicoloured

                          (cat. Michel 68/SG 68/Yvert 68)

 

Bophuthatswana - stamp as described above

 

11    15 c             blind boy, IYDP emblem, text "A new world for the blind"

                          multicoloured

                          (cat. Michel 69/SG 69/Yvert 69)

 

Bophuthatswana - stamp as described above

 

12    20 c             archer in wheel chair, IYDP emblem, text "Sport for paraplegics"

                          multicoloured

                          (cat. Michel 70/SG 70/Yvert 70)

 

Bophuthatswana - stamp as described above

 

13    25 c             man, X-ray vision on lungs, IYDP emblem, text "Fight tuberculosis"

                          multicoloured

                          (cat. Michel 71/SG 71/Yvert 71)

 

Bophuthatswana - stamp as described above

 

 

 

Postmark catalogue

 

CAPEX 78

date:                   9 to 18 June 1978

place:                 Toronto, Canada

designer:             -

item:                   exhibition card, coat of arms of Bophuthatswana

postmark cat.:     special cancellation for a philatelic exhibition

postmark image:  head of a leopard (pictured in the Philatelic Services emblem)

postmark text:     1978-06-09 to 18 CAPEX 78 TORONTO · CANADA / BOPHUTHATSWANA

remark:              the number '3' indicates its place in the national list of postmarks

 

Bophuthatswana - exhibition card - special postmark CAPEX 78

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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last revised: 9 September 2010